Leaders of the Mexican American Generation: Biographical Essays

Drawing together an impressive cadre of scholars exploring the interplay between individuals’ personal biographies and the larger currents of U.S. society, the contributors to the anthology Leaders of the Mexican American Generation offer new insight into the multidimensional histories of a range of actors influential on the national stage between 1920 and 1960.  Attention to notable individuals, major political currents of the time, and biographical method make the book of value to both a general audience and students of Mexican American history.”

So begin a recently posted review of Leaders of the Mexican American Generation: Biographical Essays in the Western Historical Quarterly. The academic anthology includes thirteen biographical essays. I am proud to have a chapter,  “Edward R. Roybal: Latino Political Pioneer and Coalition Builder.”

So what did the book’s editor, Anthony Quiroz, write about my essay in the introduction ?

Kenneth C. Burt’s chapter sheds new light on the political career of Edward R. Roybal of Los Angeles. Burt describes Roybal as being born to a working-class family with deep roots in American soil (four hundred years) and who served in the military during World War II. As with many veterans, he returned to the United States ready to make significant changes in conditions for Mexican Americans.

And while Burt allows that Roybal is perhaps best known for being the first Mexican American elected to a city council since 1881 and for his twenty years of service in the US House of Representatives, another key aspect of his legacy often gets overlooked. Scholars have not duly noted that what kept Roybal successful through those years was his ability to lead through coalition building.

Burt notes how Roybal won election to the Los Angeles City Council in 1949. He put together a progressive coalition of left-leaning groups such as Mexican Americans, African Americans, Jews, other immigrant groups, and organized labor. Roybal cut his political teeth by helping organize the Community Service Organization and the Mexican American Political Association. Later he founded the Congressional Hispanic Caucus and the National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials.

The essay shows the depths of Roybal’s dedication to his people and the ways in which he represented this generation. It also shows that Mexican Americans did not act alone. As in this case, they often sought to work with other similarly oppressed groups. According to Burt, Roybal’s coalition-building skills anticipated the later election of Antonio Villaraigosa as mayor of Los Angeles. As Burt puts it, “the Roybal model of coalition politics has proved too have enduring value in an increasingly multicultural society.”


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Manuel B. Otero, Almost Governor

Having recently obtained a nearly one-hundred-year-old political button bearing the name and image of Manuel B. Otero, I became curious: Who was he, and was there anything particularly interesting about his gubernatorial campaign?

Manuel B. Otero

Manuel B. Otero ran for governor of New Mexico in 1924 when he was the forty-six. When the voters were counted, it initially appeared that Otero would become the third Latino governor since statehood; the first being Ezequiel C. de Baca, and the second, Octaviano Larrazolo.

Long active in politics, Otero’s record of public service included two presidential appointments. President William Howard Taft appointed Otero assistant postmaster of Santa Fe in 1910. Two years later, Taft named him state collector of revenue.

Appointments of Latino political activists were limited in the United States at this time. Otreo’s rise likely reflected his family ties. His uncle, Solomon Luna, was one of the richest people in New Mexico and a longtime member of the National Republican Committee. This was a time when 70 percent of the state’s Latinos, who largely identified as Spanish Americans, registered with the party of Abraham Lincoln. Continue reading

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Hilario Delgado: Pioneering Santa Fe Postmaster

Presidents and their political parties used the position of postmaster as a political reward prior to it becoming integrated into the civil service system. The first Latino to head a post office in a city of significant size and import was Hilario Delgado in Santa Fe, New Mexico. He served from 1929 to 1934.

Politics drove Delgado’s rise and fall in the postal service. He was, by all accounts, a dedicated public servant and outstanding accountant. The Republican Party nominated him for state auditor, a statewide constitutional officer, in 1922. He was also a World War I hero and community leader, having served with distinction in France. He enjoyed a statewide network as vice commander of the inchoate and politically potent American Legion in New Mexico.

The largest newspaper in the capital city supported his 1922 campaign with gusto. Its enthusiasm practically jumps off the page: “The New Mexican will take great pleasure in supporting the candidacy of Hilario Delgado for State Auditor. We believe there is no nominee of either ticket more clearly deserving of the vote of the people of New Mexico, regardless of party.”

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